基于PLC的煤炭传输系统自动化控制设计

基于PLC的煤炭传输系统自动化控制设计

 基于PLC的煤炭传输系统自动化控制设计

摘要 :各行各业都离不开交通,要发展就得先发展运输业。所以煤炭从开挖到出售这中间离不开运输。从前煤炭的运输全靠人力,这大大降低了工作效率,也浪费人力。
本次毕业设计主要研究基于plc的煤炭传输系统自动化控制,通过对控制要求的分析,确定了大体的思路。首先剖析煤炭传输系统的组成部分,确定了整体的设计流程,在此基础上对该系统的硬件部分进行设计,在硬件设计过程中,对控制系统所需要的输入与输出的点数,进行了I/O分配,然后画出流程图与梯形图。最后对程序进行调试与运行,能够很好的进行煤炭运输,完成设计任务的要求。
关键词:运输;plc;效率
The coal transport system based on PLC automatic control design
Abstract:All?walks?of?life?cannot?leave?the?traffic,?transportation?development?must?first?development.?So?coal?from?excavation?to?sell?the?middle?without?transport.?Once?coal?transportation?by?manpower,?which?greatly?reduces?the?working?efficiency,?also?a?waste?of?manpower.   This?graduation?design?mainly?research?the?coal?transport?system?based?on?PLC?automatic?control,?through?the?analysis?of?the?control?requirements,?determine?the?general?train?of?thought.?Part?of?the?first?analysis?of?the?coal?transport?system,?determine?the?overall?design?process,?based?on?the?hardware?part?of?the?system?design,?in?the?process?of?hardware?design,?the?control?system?required?for?the?input?and?output?points,?the?I/O?distribution,?and?then?draw?a?flow?diagram?and?ladder?diagram.?Finally,?the?program?debugging?and?running,?is?good?for?coal?transportation,?the?requirement?of?design?task. 
Keywords: Transport ; plc ; efficiency
 
目录
第一章 绪论 ·····························································11
1.1课题背景及意义·······································11
1.2交代运输机集中控制系统的重要性·······················11
1.3集中控制系统的发展和存在的问题·······················12
1.4本课题研究的主要内容·································13
第二章 基于plc煤炭传输系统的总体设······················14
2.1煤炭传输的过程········································14
2.2煤炭传输系统的运行方式································14
2.3 DTS、DTL通用固定带式输送机···························15
2.4胶带运输机集中控制系统的功能设计······················16
第三章 基于plc煤炭传输系统的硬件设计·····················17
3.1继电器控制············································17
3.2单片机控制············································17
3.3?plc?控制············································17
3.4 ATV312变频器················································20
3.5三菱plc控制变频器的各种方法综合评述与对比·············20
第四章 基于plc煤炭传输系统的电路设计······················22
4.1电动机原理图············································22
4.2 plc的I/O分配··········································22
4.3硬线接线图··············································23
第五章 基于plc煤炭传输系统的软件设计·······················24
5.1软件概述·················································24
5.2软件中梯形图程序的编写方法·······························24
5.3 软件调试方法·············································25
5.4梯形图程序仿真············································26
5.5变频器通讯参数设置········································28
5.6变频器数据代码举例·········································28
5.7 plc编程方法及事例·········································29
第六章 基于plc的煤炭传输系统的故障排除与调试··················30
6.1 plc的故障排除·············································30
6.2三菱PLC故障排除技巧·······································30
6.3 plc程序调试···············································32
第七章 总结与展望··············································36
小结与致谢····················································36
附录··························································37
参考文献······················································40
 
第一章绪论
1.1  课题背景及意义
我国经济发展的重要支柱之一是煤炭,社会的发展离不开煤炭行业,对于煤炭行业来说煤炭传输自动化是煤炭行业进入现代化的标志。经济要发展就得先发展道路。要致富就得先造路。
所以煤运输是煤炭从矿井到储煤仓的重要的一个环节。从矿井到煤仓距离近有几百米远有几千米,其间道路复杂,运输如若不顺利,则会给煤炭的开采带来极大的不便。
由于科技的连续创新,煤炭行业挖煤的队伍在不断扩大,运煤的方法也经历了改朝换代的变化,现在都在使用传输机运煤的连续化,用体型硕大的设备,实行机电一体化,靠谱与安全性能高来保证挖煤运煤的连续和高效生产。选煤厂一般情况下都会选择用胶带运输机来做主要的运输设备,胶带运输机常用于水平或倾斜输送物料。由于胶带运输机运输煤的性能的上限和下限范围大,输送路途长,输送机与煤之间不存在相对的运动互不干扰,转子转的时候几乎没有阻力等,所以它适应性强、运行平稳踏实、机械能浪费少、减少了机械元件的磨损、安全性高等优点,因此在煤场中被大量的投入使用。
煤炭运输系统有以下优点:
1·节约劳动力和能源
2·降低成本
3·提高安全和效率
4·有完善的保护措施
1.2交代运输机集中控制系统的重要性
煤矿生产的重要环节是运输煤,运煤一般都使用胶带运输系统,因此它运行的搞笑型和稳定性就会受到人民的关注。又因为煤炭胶带运输机分布比较分散所以导致运输系统不能得到集中运行。运输反馈的信息在各系统中比较分散很难被汇总成完整的有效的信息以及对胶带运输系统把控的要求比较高等特点,由于煤炭行业挖煤队伍连续地壮大,挖煤的技能水平连续的提升,所以就加快了运输系统的发展,因此现代化的煤炭行业中的煤炭运输也需要系统化的管理。
以前输送机所用的方法是员工就地分工控制与管理,也就是让每个输送机由一名工人来进行控制,这也就是最原始的最耗人力的控制方法。这个简单的操作方法是直白的控制输送机的开关,运作起来极其容易只要按下按钮就完事了,也最明了,不参合一个关于控制的元器件,所以基本上不需要做保养的工作,所以就需要很多人,也因为少了维护导致机械更换周期变短,也因为工人的个人对工作的态度良莠不齐从而导致有很多事故的发生,生产的不能顺利的进行,影响工作效率和经济效益。中央把控的方法就是在这个完整运输线路上添加一套集中控制装置,然后就可以集中控制控制室的运作机构,使工人来进行运作。这不但减少了大量的人员,也避免了工人之间闹矛盾导致事故的发生,也能及时发现故障和通报上级来维修,这样就减少了停产时间提高了工作效率也为机电一体化创造了条件。

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